Monday, May 25, 2020
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1420 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2019/08/16 Category Technology Essay Level High school Tags: Cell Phone Essay Did you like this example? Nomophobia is a term that the medical field has actually come up with for the behavioral addiction to cell phones. It translates to no mobile phone phobia and various other terms such as mobile phone dependence can be associated with this addiction. Susan Ladika addresses in the article, Technology Addiction, that those who are addicted to cell phones had more neurotransmitter activity in the region of the brain tied to rewards, mood regulation, and control of inhibition (5). DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Misuse of Cell Phones" essay for you Create order The brain of those addicted is actually being altered. Smartphones encourage multitasking. However, no matter how much one may feel accomplished by multitasking, it has been proven that multitasking decreases the level of performance in all tasks. Unless someone is a genius, for most people, it is nearly impossible to divide their attention evenly and effectively between several tasks. One common example of multitasking is distracted driving. People feel enticed to look at their phones while in control of a vehicle. This proves to be extremely dangerous because driving requires undivided attention. Despite this being known as common knowledge, people still look at their phones while driving or even just stopped at a light. In the article The Smartphone Effect, Becca Broaddus reports that The United States Department of Transportation reported cell phones are involved in 1.6 million auto crashes each year that cause a half million injuries and take approximately 6,000 lives (12). Incr eased use of cell phones has also been proven to desensitize people to sensational content, such as violence, sex, and drugs. Never before has such content been so accessible and pervasive. Authors, Lt. Col. Dave Grossman and Gloria DeGaetano, point out in Stop Teaching Our Kids To Kill, that by age eighteen, a U.S. youth will have seen at last 40,000 stimulated murders and 200,000 acts of violence (15). This is all thanks to the media, in which violent videos draw in more revenue. The more one uses their phone, the higher the chance they use social media more often. According to Sherry Turkle, the author of Reclaiming Conversation, the pressure of appearing perfect and fabricating this perfect life is mentally and emotionally exhausting. Thus, misuse of cell phones leads to feelings of depression and social anxiety (25). Loss of focus, feeling of depression and anxiety, and the large chunk of time a cellular device takes from a person, all combined, lead to lower academic performance. School work is no longer at the forefront of students brains, but rather their cellphones or their feelings of sadness. Symptoms of cell phone dependence also include several disorders. Cell phones deliver instant gratification. A person can get a package from Amazon the next day, people respond to text messages within a few minutes, and so on. Ramanpreet Kaur and Saroj Sharma Nagpal explain how people who are impulsive are psychologically unable to choose delayed rewards which may offer more, over immediate ones. They neglect the consequences and only seek instant gains (Kaur and Nagpal 2). Such risky behavior can lead to dangerous situations. Nomophobia has also been related to textiety, which has been put forth by Charet Taneja in the article, The Psychology of Excessive Cellular Phone Use, to be the fear of not receiving or sending messages. This fear may be due to the underlying and greater fear of being isolated socially and ridiculed or ignored. As mentioned by Taneja, excessive cell phone use also leads to ringxiety and textaphrenia. These are disorders in which people experience an auditory h allucination in which they hear their phone ringing due to an incoming call. In reality, however, no such event occured. Furthermore, people may imagine feeling their phone vibrate in their pocket (2). When their cell phone is taken away, people who are addicted tend to get stressed and anxious. Their brain is insistently craving for that rush of dopamine. Such anxiety can make people lash out and be very moody. They feel on edge and can become angry and create tense situations with their fits of anger. Even though a withdrawal symptom does not encompass direct death, the quality of peoples lives is being affected. They invest their time towards a hand-held device, rather than investing in their familial, friend, romantic, and even intrapersonal relationship. Interpersonal skills relate to those set of skills which are essential for the positive communication between two people. These skills are used to help build and strengthen relationships and to work effectively with others. More time spent on online interactions leads to less empathy. For kids, especially, they are still learning right from wrong and often are unaware of the enormity of their actions. Now take phones which have messaging apps that guarantee anonymity. These kids can easily say mean words and not recognize that what they said was hurtful because they are unable to see the persons reaction in live-time. Instead, a screen greets them back as they feel comfortable in the confines of their home. Another form of neglect for face-to-face interactions is the habit of phubbing. Broaddus writes that phubbing, for example, is a situation where someone is using their phone while having a conversation with someone in the flesh (Broaddus 12). It gives the subliminal message, wheth er people mean it or not, that their phone is a little more important and worthy of their attention rather than the person they are talking to. The feelings of the other person may get hurt and the divided attention of the person phubbing leads to more superficial conversations with little direct eye contact. Consequently, both phubbing and a lack of empathy impede the growth of a relationship, and may even reverse its progression. This creates more opportunities for less trust, intimacy, and more lying in relationships overall. Some people may even get to the point where they cut off face-to-face interactions almost completely, and instead, spend all their time on their cell phones. These people feel that they have all they need and do not realize how crucial face-to-face interactions are for the human psyche. In the flesh interactions improve listening skills, conversation skills, allow people to learn how to stand up for themselves, and even lead to higher self-esteem. All these aspects of interpersonal skills work together to help build meaningful, strong connections. Due to an addiction to smartphones, intrapersonal skills are negatively impacted, and in turn, relationships are harmed. More conflicts and superficial relationships arise due to a person who is smartphone dependent. People swipe left and right, but there seems to an endless number of potential partners. This would be awkward in real life, but online, it is normalized. Such an environment, however, makes it more difficult to develop a secure and trusting relationship. Furthermore, according to Jeff Cain in the article, Its Time to Confront Student Mental Health Issues Associated with Smartphones and Social Media, online friendships lack emotional nourishment (2). Someone with six-hundred online friends can feel helplessly alone because compared to real-life relationships built upon face-to-face interactions, virtual relationships lack in meaning. There is no physical contact or eye contact over texting, which can reinforce a tender moment. Also, over text things can be edited, which hinders a persons ability to deal with others and express themselves clearly. Ultimately, texting and even talking over t he phone is drastically different from actually being together. A lack of empathy makes it much easier for kids to turn to cyber-bullying. In the book, Cyberbullying and the Wild Wild Web, author J.A. Hitchcock defines cyberbullying as the repeated communications online after the harasser has been asked to stop (15). They do not realize the enormity of the words they have said. Moreover, social media leads to more opportunities for drama to happen. This is because people can feel encouraged to keep stirring the pot. With the want to impress their friends and express dominance, kids bully other kids online. People have to be careful about what they do online because what they do will be online forever. Additionally, the right people can learn everything about a person from online. They can learn the name, friends, and even the location of the target. Cyberstalking is a serious situation, in which the police should be contacted. People are evidently aware of the threat. In a 2018 survey conducted by Deloitte, respondents expressed their greatest co ncern about sharing personal data with third parties and about usage of their personal data. 86 percent are very or fairly concerned about each one (Global 8). Privacy, along with the temptation to start drama and the viewing of sexual content needs to be kept under control. Otherwise, delinquent behaviors will arise and affect society.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
What is geography to you? Well geography is the study of physical features of the earth and its atmospheres of human activity as it affects and is affected by this distribution of populations and resources.as well as land use and industries. Geography has do with many things such as history ,culture and society .the Japanese history, it has to do with feminist science it goes back further than all this . My topic about geography I have chosen to write about Mr. Christopher Columbus. Christopher Columbus was born in 1951 in genoa Italy. He was born into a middle class family. Although his childhood is limited to us we are aware that he was well educated. He also spoke several languages. Mr. Columbus was a very intelligent man from the start. Christopher Columbus chose to sail the world, he first took the sea at the age of 14.in 1479 he married a young lady named filipa Moniz. And in 1480 his son was born. He and his family lived in Lisbon until 1485.at that time something t ragic had happen to the family Mr. Columbus wife passed away. After she passed away Columbus decided to take his son Diego and move to Spain, he dearly missed his wife with no doubt in his mind so he chose to sail the western trade routes. Christopher believed that because the world was sphere any ship could reach the Far East and set up trades routing Asia just by sailing west. Christopher Columbus first voyage was on august 3, 1492 with three monarchs. He had three ships by the namesShow MoreRelatedWhat Is Environmental Geography? Essay944 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Final Exam 1. What is environmental geography? 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Capital City: New Delhi Currency: Rupee [1 CAN$ = 50.09 Indian Rupee (INR)], 1 Rupee = 100 Paise Languages spoken: Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, PunjabiRead MoreWhat Is The Geography Of Alberta885 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAlbertas population is 4.146 million people. The province extends 1,223 kilometers Latitude, and 660 kilometers Longitud. Alberta highest point is Mount Logan with the height of 19,541 feet. The soil of the Province is fertile. The Province is mostly based on the Rocky Mountains, and the great plains. Alberta has not hot but warm summers and extremely cold winters. The province has cold arctic weather from the north. The winter produce extreme temperatures varying from Ã¢Ëâ54 degrees celsius, In theRead MoreWhat Is The Geography Of The Us824 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUnited States Geography The United States is located in the center of the North America continent. 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Overall, our cityÃ¢â¬â¢s climateRead MoreWhat Is Russian Geography, History And Democratization Of Russia?1099 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespoint of view. As a help in better understanding, Russian geography, history, demography and economy will be shortly analyzed. At the end is a brief overview of security issues Russia has produced in recent years. Russia is the biggest country in the world, stretching across 11 Time Zones, covering large part of Eurasia and 11.46% of global land mass. In spite of the size, majority of Russian territory is not convenient for comfortable living what is the reason that 75% of population lives western ofRead MoreWhat is the importance of setting and geography in William Shakespeares Othello?1685 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages the flourishing heart of civilised and refined behaviour but moves from here to the hostile climes of Cyprus where conflict begins to develop. We are taken from a location where Brabantio is shocked to hear of law breaking and stealing happening What, tellst thou me of robbing? This is Venice, my house is not a grange to a place with an unstable political standing. Cyprus is ultimately unable to hold the culture and society of Venice within its realms, hence why the personalities of the nobleRead MoreWhat is geography? Author Alastair Bonnett attempts to answer this question in the b ook titled the700 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages What is geography? Author Alastair Bonnett attempts to answer this question in the book titled the same. He states that geography is a Ã¢â¬Å"human enterprise...[that] is an attempt to find and impose order.Ã¢â¬ 1 He explores the many facets of geography that include history, political power, climate, and the humans that live throughout the world. The first two chapters explain in more detail about how geography is knowing the world through both political order and nature. The first chapter of BonnettÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreWhat Part Did Geography Play During Rome s Ability Of Build An Empire?1112 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHistory Discussion Questions Answer each of the following questions as you reach the lesson they relate to. You will submit the completed work file with lesson 7.08 1. (05.03) What part did geography play in Rome s ability to build an empire? Rome is located on the River Tiber, so from it has good trade access. It expanded to cover the Italian peninsular the Alps in the north formed a natural barrier against the French. It provided easy access to the southern part; it allowed trade to flourishRead MoreFeminist Geography1667 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFeminist Geography Since its conception, geography has been involved in the development of races and genders, mapping the boundaries that separate and exclude the world of privilege from the other. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Point of view (the perspective from which a story is told) has a significant role in how the characters and events in a given story are analyzed. The readers response to the literature depends greatly on the position of the author and/or narrator; whether he is on the outside looking in, or vise versa. The use of point of view also allows the author to convey a certain message or belief by allowing for other literary elements such as irony and sympathy . The point of view in literature is one of the central focuses for interpretation. Dubliners, by James Joyce is an outstanding example of how the use of point of view influences how characters and events are interpreted. Joyce writes the first three stories of Dubliners in the first person point of view, the rest are told in there person. Taking a look at a few of the short stories , Araby, Eveline, and Clay, it is obvious that Joyce s choice of narration as well as the complexity of how he carries out those narrations plays a signifi cant role in the analysis of his work. Araby is told in first person, from the point of view of the protagonist. Despite the first person narration in Araby, Joyce does little to convince readers that the story is told from a boy s perspective. On the contrary, actually, the narrator seemingly has the maturity of a man certainly beyond the experience of the narrator of the story. Joyce s way of narrating this story gives readers the ability to clearly identify the distress thatShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of James Joyce s Dubliners Dubliners1633 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBria LeeAnn Coleman ENG 299 Dr. Mark Facknitz October 12, 2015 Epiphanies in James JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s Dubliners Characters in Dubliners experience revelations in their every day lives which James Joyce called epiphanies. Merriam Webster defines an epiphany as Ã¢â¬Å"an illuminating discovery, realization, or disclosure.Ã¢â¬ While word epiphany has a religious connotation, these epiphanies characters in Dubliners experience do not bring new experiences and possibility of reform that epiphanies usually have. JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢sRead More Paralysis in Dubliners Essay2290 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesIn his letters, Joyce himself has said that Dubliners was meant Ã¢â¬Å"to betray the soul of that hemiplegia or paralysis which many consider a cityÃ¢â¬ (55). The paralysis he was talking about is the paralysis of action. The characters in Dubliners exemplify paralysis of action in their inability to escape their lives. In another of JoyceÃ¢â¬â¢s writings, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Joyce writes of Ireland: Ã¢â¬Å"When the soul of a man is born in this country there are nets flung at it to holdRead MoreThe Fallout After World War 1 And The Great Depression2535 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesstretched into prominent literature; several authors best deployed these ideals such as; American poet Jean Toomer,Irish poet James Joyce and American poet T.S Eliot. Their depictions of the rural broken lives of their characters capitalized on the idea of fragmentation. Adopting the cubist conventions of depicting real subject matter, but from shifting/multiple viewpoints, Joyce, Toomer and Eliot constructed characters, narrative and content (which was experimental and elliptical) whilst playing withRead MoreLife After Death By James Joyce1544 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesliterature. James Joyce was an Irish novelist, and no doubt one of the most influential writers of the early 20th century. Joyce explores the intersection of life and death in, The Dubliners, a collection of short stories. He begins with the story, Ã¢â¬Å"The Sisters,Ã¢â¬ and ends the collection with, Ã¢â¬Å"The Dead .Ã¢â¬ In both of these stories, Joyce uses the stream-of-consciousness to show the reader observations of big events through small details in the everyday lives of the main characters. Joyce explores themesRead MoreIdentity Politics In Post-Industrial Revolution Writing.1992 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Identity Politics in Post-Industrial Revolution Writing James Joyce s, The Dead and Melville s, Ã¢â¬Å"Bartleby the Scrivener, are both short stories that critique our relation with identity politics. In this paper, I will argue that both of these works aim to show that a symptom of modernization is that self-deception erodes our humanity. The process of which I build this position in the paper will somewhat mirror the progression of the readings. 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ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why one cannot lay down a fixed Ã¢â¬Å"modelÃ¢â¬ Read MoreCleanth Brookss Essay Irony as a Principle of Structure9125 Words Ã |Ã 37 PagesMarxÃ¢â¬â¢s economic theories as such: we shall confine our discussion to their methodological premises and implications. It will in any case be obvious to the reader that the present writer upholds the validity of their content. Secondly, a detailed analysis of Rosa LuxemburgÃ¢â¬â¢s thought is necessary because its seminal discoveries no less than its errors have had a decisive influence on the theories of Marxists outside Russia, above all in Germany. To some extent this influence persists to this day. ForRead MoreModernist Elements in the Hollow Men7051 Words Ã |Ã 29 Pageslong as they continue to worship these stone idols the hope of attaining salvation will remain beyond their reach. Furthermore, the misquoted lyrics of the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s rhyme Ã¢â¬Å"the Mulberry BushÃ¢â¬ , according to Robert A.Morace in his article Ã¢â¬Å"Notes and analysis on The Hollow MenÃ¢â¬ , signify that the poemÃ¢â¬â¢s narrator is attempting to come to terms with the perversion of childhood beliefs. However, Eliot does not lament the decadence of modern times without the search for renewal and redemption. Ã¢â¬Å"The poem
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Peoples Charter of 1838: In 1837, six Members of Parliament and six working men, including William Lovett, (from the London Working Mens Association, set up in 1836) formed a committee, which then published the Peoples Charter in 1838. This stipulated the six main aims of the movement as: 1. A vote for every man twenty-one years of age, of sound mind, and not undergoing punishment for crime. 2. The secret ballot. To protect the elector in the exercise of his vote. 3. No property qualification for members of Parliament thus enabling the constituencies to return the man of their choice, be the rich or poor. 4. Payment of members, thus enabling an honest tradesman, working man, or other person, to serve a constituency, when taken from his business to attend to the interests of the Country. 5. Equal Constituencies, securing the same amount of representation for the same number of electors, instead of allowing small constituencies to swamp the votes of large ones. We will write a custom essay sample on Chartism or the Chartist Movement or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 6. Annual parliaments, thus presenting the most effectual check to bribery and intimidation, since though a constituency might be bought once in seven years (even with the ballot), no purse could buy a constituency (under a system of universal suffrage) in each ensuing twelve-month; and since members, when elected for a year only, would not be able to defy and betray their constituents as now. The Chartists obtained one and a quarter million signatures and presented the Charter to the House of Commons in 1839, where it was rejected by a vote of 235 to 46. Parliament, by a large majority, voted not even to hear the petitioners. Many of the leaders of the movement, having threatened to call a general strike, were arrested. When demonstrators marched on the prison at Newport, Monmouthshire, demanding the release of their leaders, troops opened fire, killing 24 and wounding 40 more. The leaders of the movement: John Frost, Henry Vincent and Samuel Holberry. 1842: Chartisms biggest petition and the General Strike 1842 was the year in which more energy was hurled against the authorities than in any other of the 19th century.  In early May, 1842, a further petition, of over three million signatures, was submitted, which was yet again rejected by Parliament. The depression of 1841Ã¢â¬â1842 led to a wave of strikes in which Chartist activists were in the forefront, and demands for the charter were included alongside economic demands. Workers went on strike in 14 English and 8 Scottish counties. Several Chartist leaders, including Feargus OConnor, George Julian Harney, and Thomas Cooper were arrested, along with nearly 1,500 others. The 1848 petition On 10 April 1848, a new Chartist Convention organised a mass meeting on Kennington Common, which would form a procession to present another petition to Parliament. The original plan of the Chartists, if the petition was ignored, was to create a separate national assembly and press the Queen to dissolve parliament until the charter was introduced into law. However the Chartists were plagued with indecision and the national assembly eventually dissolved itself, claiming lack of support. But it was the end of the movement. And finally IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to remark that the apparent failure of Chartism as a political movement in the mid-19th century proved to be temporary. Five of the six points in the Charter were adopted by 1918.
Tuesday, April 7, 2020
Verbal-Text as a Process of Compositional and Improvisational Elaboration in Litungu Music Essay Example
Verbal-Text as a Process of Compositional and Improvisational Elaboration in Litungu Music Essay VERBAL-TEXT AS A PROCESS OF COMPOSITIONAL AND IMPROVISATIONAL ELABORATION IN BUKUSU LITUNGU MUSIC by ABIGAEL NANCY MASASABI Submitted in accordance with the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF MUSICOLOGY at the UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA SUPERVISOR: DR MARIE R. JORRITSMA CO- SUPERVISOR: DR FLORENCE NGALE MIYA MAY 2011 i DECLARATION Student number: 3658-166-6 I declare that VERBAL-TEXT AS A PROCESS OF COMPOSITIONAL AND IMPROVISATIONAL ELABORATION IN BUKUSU LITUNGU MUSIC is my own work and that all sources that I have used or quoted have been indicated and acknowledged by means of complete references. _______________________ SIGNATURE (Miss A N Masasabi) ______________ DATE ii DEDICATION To the late Japheth Muia Mutangili and my daughter Grace Buyanzi. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work would not have been accomplished without the moral and professional support of a number of individuals. I am particularly grateful to my supervisors for their patience, support and guidance. I thank Dr Marie Jorritsma for her perceptiveness in matters of theoretical content, language and organization. Her careful reading and criticisms led to substantial improvement in the quality of this thesis. I am also indebted to my second supervisor Dr Florence Ngale Miya whose comments and suggestions were a source of inspiration. Dr MiyaÃ¢â¬Ës encouragement and her confidence in my ability kept me going throughout my work. I thank Dr Kidula for taking time to critique my thesis, directing me to books relevant to my study and for sending me a number of articles that enhanced my thesis. I thank Dr and Prof Tamusuza for insightful criticisms to the theory, method and terminologies used in my thesis. I also thank Dr Kilonzo for her encouragement and for proofreading my thesis. We will write a custom essay sample on Verbal-Text as a Process of Compositional and Improvisational Elaboration in Litungu Music specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Verbal-Text as a Process of Compositional and Improvisational Elaboration in Litungu Music specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Verbal-Text as a Process of Compositional and Improvisational Elaboration in Litungu Music specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In addition I would like to appreciate Dr Omondi Okech for editing my thesis. I would also like to acknowledge the assistance of Fred Wekesa Kusienya and Isaac Shitubi who made my fieldwork much easier. They helped me to identify interviewees and escorted me during my fieldwork. Shitubi was instrumental during the interview process and Kusienya assisted me by verifying the translations of songs from Lubukusu to English. I appreciate the cooperation I received from my interviewees who included members of the Jackson Kisika Band, the Namatete Band, the Sinani Group Band, the Lugulu Bumusika Band and the Kwane Band. Many thanks go to my parents Cleophas Masasabi and Grace Masasabi, my brothers Richard and Wellington, and sisters Catherine and Dorcas for their support and inspiration. Special thanks to my mother for taking care of my baby Grace as I was busy collecting data. Finally, I appreciate the almighty God for giving me strength and the sound mind to undertake this study. iv ABSTRACT The Bukusu community is predominantly found in Bungoma district of Western Kenya. The Litungu is a word referring to a lyre among the Bukusu community. Music accompanied by this instrument is what is referred to as Litungu music. This music makes use of sung text and Ã¢â¬Å"verbal-textÃ¢â¬ / silao-sikeleko (speech and speech-melody) and silao-sikeleko is the focal point of this study. Silao-sikeleko is performed in alternation with sung text in Litungu music. This study seeks to identify the cultural and compositional role of silao-sikeleko in the music. To achieve the objectives of this study I used a qualitative approach to collect and analyze data. Data collection included the use of interviews and observation. The interviewees included performers of Litungu music, whose music was audio recorded and video recorded for analysis. In addition, I made observations of the performance sites and performance behaviour, taking notes and making audio and video recording. Music for analysis was then selected on the basis that it had the silao-sikeleko component. The Bukusu cultural view of silao-sikeleko is discussed in relation to their customs and way of life. The execution of silao-sikeleko is based on a culturally conceived framework that allows the involvement of various performers in the performance composition process. Here the contexts within which silao-sikeleko is performed are identified. Analysis of the relationship between sung text and silao-sikeleko established that whereas the two are thematically unified, silaosikeleko substantiates the sung texts by facilitating an understanding of messages contained in the songs. The analysis of language use ascertained that silao-sikeleko makes use of language devices such as proverbs, idioms, symbolism, riddles and similes. I established that silao-sikeleko as a performance compositional element has its own presentational structure that influences the overall structure of the Litungu music. Litungu music has a quasi-rondoic structure whose output is not static but varies according to context and the wishes of the soloist. The soloist interprets how effectively a given message has been communicated during performance determining how much silao-sikeleko should be performed. Silao-sikeleko is in most cases composed and performed by various members of a performing group. Key terms: Kenyan music, Bukusu music, Bukusu culture, Litungu music, silao-sikeleko, performance composition, music composition, song text, music structure, improvisation. v TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION . ii DEDICATION . iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .. iv ABSTRACT ILLUSTRATIONS ix LIST OF FIGURES . ix LIST OF TABLES . x LIST OF PLATES . DEFINITION OF TERMS xi CHAPTER ONE .. 1 INTRODUCTION .. 1 1. 1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY .. 1 1. 1. 1 Who are the Bukusu? .. 2 1. 1. 1. 1 Bukusu Origin and Settlement 3 1. 1. 1. 2 The Bukusu Family and Social Life 6 1. 1. 2 Bukusu Litungu Music .. 10 1. 1. 2. 1. Litungu Music in the Community . 0 1. 1. 2. 2. Gender Issues in Litungu Music 11 1. 1. 2. 3. Construction of the Litungu . 12 1. 1. 2. 4. Litungu Performance Technique and Ensemble 14 1. 2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM . 19 1. 3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES .. 0 1. 4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 20 1. 5 RATIONALE AND SIGNIFICANCE . 21 1. 6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION . 22 1. 7 THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK . 23 CHAPTER TWO .. 8 LITERATURE REVIEW . 28 2. 1 INTRODUCTION .. 28 2. 2 COMPOSITIONAL ELEMENTS IN AFRICAN MUSICS . 28 2. 3 SONG TEXTS AND SILAO-SIKELEKO 38 2. 4 CREATIVE PROCESS IN AF RICAN MUSIC .. 44 2. CONCLUSION . 48 CHAPTER THREE . 49 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 49 3. 1 INTRODUCTION .. 49 3. 2 RESEARCH DESIGN .. 49 3. POPULATION AND SAMPLING 50 3. 3. 1 Target population . 50 3. 3. 2 Purposive sampling . 50 3. 3. 3 Snowball sampling .. 51 3. 4 DATA COLLECTION . 2 vi 3. 4. 1 Fieldwork 53 3. 4. 2 Interview method . 54 3. 4. 3 Observation . 56 3. 4. 4 Note taking .. 56 3. 4. 5 Audio and video ecording.. 57 3. 4. 6 Photography .. 57 3. 5 DATA PROCESSING, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION.. 58 3. 8 CONCLUSION . 58 CHAPTER FOUR . 0 FORMAL STRUCTURE OF LITUNGU MUSIC 60 4. 1 INTRODUCTION .. 60 4. 2 SILAO-SIKELEKO STRUCTURE . 61 4. 2. 1 Narration . 62 4. 2. 2 Dialogue by Two People. 3 4. 2. 3 Dialogue by More Than Two People 64 4. 3 OCCURRENCE OF SILAO-SIKELEKO. 67 4. 4 THE CONSTRUCTION OF INSTRUMENTAL PHRASES .. 71 4. 5 OVERALL FORM OF LITUNGU MUSIC .. 79 4. 7 CONCLUSION . 2 CHAPTER FIVE .. 94 THE CULTURAL ROLE OF SILAO-SIKELEKO IN BUKUSU LITUNGU MUSIC . 94 5. 1 I NTRODUCTION .. 94 5. 2 THE ORIGIN OF THE SILAO-SIKELEKO ELEMENT IN LITUNGU MUSIC .. 95 5. 3 CONTEXT OF SILAO-SIKELEKO IN LITUNGU MUSIC .. 97 5. CULTURAL FUNCTION OF SILAO-SIKELEKO IN LITUNGU MUSIC 105 5. 4. 1 Introduction and Acknowledge Personalities 105 5. 4. 2 Education . 108 5. 4. 3 Self Expression . 113 5. 4. 4 Social Commentary. 113 5. CONCLUSION .. 121 CHAPTER SIX 123 SUNG TEXT AND SILAO-SIKELEKO . 123 6. 1 INTRODUCTION 123 6. 2 THEMATIC ROLE OF SILAO-SIKELEKO .. 24 6. 3 QUANTITY OF SILAO-SIKELEKO IN LITUNGU MUSIC . 136 6. 4 LANGUAGE USE 141 6. 4. 1. Prose vs Poetry. 143 6. 4. 3. Imagery 145 6. 4. 6. Proverbs and Sayings 48 6. 4. 7. Symbolism . 152 6. 4. 9. Riddle .. . 155 6. 4. 10. Idiomatic Expression . 156 6. 4. 11. Allegory 156 6. 5. WORDS DEPICTING RELATIONSHIPS 158 6. 6 CONCLUSION .. 160 CHAPTER SEVEN .. 163 vii PERFORMANCE COMPOSITION IN BUKUSU LITUNGU MUSIC 163 7. 1 INTRODUCTION 63 7. 2 PREREQUISITES FOR THE IMPROVISATIONAL PROCESS . 165 7. 2. 1 Prolonged Exposure to Music 167 7. 2. 2 Knowledge and Mastery of Lubukusu .. 171 7. 2. 3. Knowledge of Cultural Environment and Events .. 173 7. 2. 4. Presence and Maturity of Audience .. 174 7. 2. 5. Intra-Group and Inter-Group Interaction 175 7. 2. 6. Knowledge of Instrumental Genre . 176 7. 3 THE CONSTANT AND VARIED FEATURES OF LITUNGU MUSIC .. 177 7. 4 THE CREATIVE PROCESSES 188 7. 5 CONCLUSION .. 193 CHAPTER EIGHT .. 195 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.. 195 8. 1 SUMMARY . 195 8. 2 CONCLUSIONS 195 8. 3 RECOMMENDATIONS .. 99 BIBLIOGRAPHY .. 201 APPENDIX I 216 SONGS IN LUBUKUSU AND THEIR TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH 216 APPENDIX II .. 252 CONSENT FORM FOR RESEARCH ASSISTANTS .. 52 APPENDIX III . 254 CONSENT FORM FOR INTERVIEWEES . 254 APPENDIX 1V 255 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS . 55 APPENDIX V .. 256 FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION INTERVIEW GUIDE 256 APPENDIX VI. 257 INDEX TO AUDIO CD . 257 viii ILLUSTRATIONS LIST OF FIGURES 1. 1 Map of Kenya showing the location of Bungoma district 1. An Example of a Seven-Stringed Litungu Scalic Pattern 1. 3. An Example of an Eight-Stringed Litungu Scalic Pattern 1. 4. An Example of a Twelve-Stringed Litungu Scalic Pattern 1. 5 Interpretation of R egula QureshiÃ¢â¬â¢s performance model of musical analysis 4. 1 Chingubo by the Lugulu Bumusika Band showing Isiriri and Litungu phrases 4. 2 First variation performed by the Isiriri in the song Chingubo (Lubao 2007) 4. 3 Second variation performed by the Isiriri in the song Chingubo (Lubao 2007) 4. 4 Solo-response of the song entitled Chingubo against instrumental accompaniment 4. a Litungu phrase of the song entitled Endakano (Lubao 2007) 4. 5b Isiriri phrase of the song entitled Endakano (Lubao 2007) 4. 6 Litungu phrase of the song Mayi (Namatete 2007) 4. 7 Resultant instrumental music of the song Mayi (Namatete 2007) 4. 8 Call and Response excerpt from the song Ewuyo Ino (Mukubwa 2007) 4. 9 Call and Refrain excerpt from the song Nekoye (Manyali 2000) 4. 10 Solo and Chorused Refrain excerpt from the song Ewuyo Ino (Mukubwa 2007) 4. 11 Strophic form excerpt from the song Namulobi (Namatete 2007) 4. 12 Background, middle ground and foreground features of Litungu music 7. An excer pt from the song Eswa by the Kwane Band 7. 2 Ewuyo Ino theme by the Kwane Band 7. 3. Ewuyo Ino vocal theme by the Lugulu Bumusika Band 4 14 14 14 26 73 74 74 75 76 76 77 77 82 82 82 83 91 170 177 178 7. 4 Relationship between the vocal melody and the drone as performed by Kwane Band 179 7. 5 New vocal melody introduced by Kwane Band in the song Ewuyo Ino 7. 6 Lugulu Bumusika BandÃ¢â¬â¢s first new melody in the song Ewuyo Ino 7. 7 The Lugulu Bumusika BandÃ¢â¬â¢s second new melody in the song Ewuyo Ino 7. 8 Mayi Muro by the Kisika Band 179 179 180 181 7. Excerpt of the song Mayi Muro showing the relationship between the vocal melody and the instrumental part as performed by Kwane Band 7. 10 Vocal melody of the song Mayi Muro as performed by Lugulu Bumusika Band ix 181 181 7. 11 The Kwane BandÃ¢â¬â¢s new material to the song Mayi Muro 7. 12 Opening excerpt of the song Kulukulu wa Bwabi as performed by Kwane Band 7. 13 Opening excerpt of the song Kulukulu wa Bwabi by the Lugulu Bu musika Band 7. 14 Thematic melody of the song Kulukulu wa Bwabi 7. 15 Thematic variation of Kulukulu wa Bwabi by Kwane Band LIST OF TABLES 4. Frequency of silao-sikeleko in Bukusu Litungu music 4. 2 Structure of songs 4. 3 The first quasi-rondoic form presentation 4. 4 Structure of the first presentation of quasi-rondoic form in the song Nekoye 4. 5 Structure of the first presentation of quasi-rondoic form in the song Mayi muro 4. 6 Structure of the first presentation of quasi-rondoic form in the song Ewuyo Ino 4. 7 Structure of the second quasi-rondoic form presentation in the song Yekamakhanya 4. 8 Structure of the second quasi-rondoic form presentation in the song Lijembe 4. Structure of the third presentation of quasi-rondoic form in the song Namulobi 4. 10 Structure of the third presentation of quasi-rondoic form in the song Endakano 6. 1A Quantity of silao-sikeleko and sung text 6. 1B Percentage of silao-sikeleko by group 6. 2 Length of silao-sikeleko in Litungu 182 184 185 18 6 186 69 80 87 87 88 88 89 89 90 90 137 138 139 LIST OF PLATES 1A Parts of the Litungu. Photograph taken by Nancy Masasabi, on 7th May 2010 1B Playing position of the Litungu, demonstrated by Wekesa Kusienya. 2 The Isiriri. Photograph taken by Nancy Masasabi, on 6th February 2007 3 Siiye. Photograph taken by Nancy Masasabi, on 6th February 2007 4 The improvised drum played by Wekesa Kusienya 5 First structure of silao-sikeleko 6 Second structure of silao-sikeleko 7 Third structure of silao-sikeleko 8 Kwane Band, Sylvester Mukubwa on the Litungu and Caleb Wangila on the Isiriri 13 15 17 17 18 64 65 68 163 x DEFINITION OF TERMS Abaluhya This word refers to a community in Western Kenya. The word is used interchangeably with the words Baluhya, and Luhya to mean the same thing. Composition As a product, compositions are musical concepts that have been assimilated and are integral to a Bukusu musician. They are called upon to inform the process of music making. As a process composition is the act of formulating new musical ideas within the Bukusu musical cultural genre. The ideas are mainly conceived and rehearsed before the actual performance. Dominant The fifth tone on the fifth open string, a perfect fifth from the referential tone. Improvisation Creation of music in the course of performance; this is similar to extemporization. Improvised drum This is a plastic water container turned upside down whose base is struck by sticks to produce rhythmic accompaniment in Litungu music. It is used instead of the traditional drum called Efumbo. Khulaa-khukeleka To verbalize or utter the speech and speech-melody sections of Bukusu Litungu music. Mediant The third tone of the third open string, a major third from the referential tone. xi Omukeleki The person who speaks or performs speech-melody in Litungu music. In plural they are called Bakeleki. Performance composition This is the process of formulating new musical ideas as variations of the existing melodies and silao-sikeleko within a given context during performance. Quasi-rondoic A musical form that is similar to rondo form with some deviations from the conventional rondo format. It does not always start with an Ã¢â¬Å"aÃ¢â¬ section alternating with other sections (b, c, d, and so on). Silao-sikeleko Silao-sikeleko encompasses speech and speech-melody as musical elements in Litungu music. The term is used as a synonym to verbal-text. Subdominant The fourth tone on the fourth open string, a perfect fourth from the referential tone. Supertonic The second tone, on the second open string, a major second from the referential tone. Tonic This is the referential tone in Litungu music which is normally on the first open string of the Litungu from the left. xii CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Performance composition and/or improvisation are common characteristic features of musics on the African continent. 1 Performance composition refers to the creative perspective of music during a performance in a given socio-cultural context. Such a process is facilitated by the fact that musics from oral cultures are not notated but passed on orally from on e generation to another, thus memory is essential. This study is based on the Bukusu peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Litungu music. The Bukusu culture has been transmitted orally thus the musicians who are cultural transmitters depend heavily on their memory. Within this culture musical composition can be perceived as products and processes. As a product, compositions are musical concepts that have been assimilated and are integral to a Bukusu musician. They are called upon to inform the process of music making. As a process composition is the act of formulating new musical ideas within the Bukusu musical cultural genre. The ideas are mainly conceived and rehearsed before the actual performance. In the process of performance, anyone listening to Litungu music cannot escape hearing verbal-text/ silao-sikeleko as part of the musical experience. The occurrence of silaosikeleko in Litungu music is as captivating as it is educative and appears many times in the performances of this musical genre. Silao-sikeleko is a term I use to refer to both speech and speech-melody. My study of Litungu music separates sung text from speech and speech-melody. The speech aspect of silao-sikeleko is performed as narrations and/or dialogue. I have preferred to consider speech-melody as part of silao-sikeleko for three reasons. First, the amount of text used and the rate at which words unfold as speech-melody are similar to that of speech. Second, speech and speech-melody unfold in prose, and third, speech-melody and speech in Litungu music are so intertwined that it is sometimes not easy to separate the two when listening to the music. For a further discussion of performance composition and improvisation as used in this thesis refer to chapter seven. 1 1 In order to understand the compositional process, I analyze how silao-sikeleko is composed and performed, and also where and when silao-sikeleko occurs in Litungu music. In this regard, the study perceives silao-sikeleko as a musical element and relates it to other musical elements within Litungu music. Furthermore, there is emphasis on the comparison between silao-sikeleko and sung text, because both silao-sikeleko and sung text are made up of words. I also analyze the instrumental phrases over which silao-sikeleko is performed. Once the relationship between silao-sikeleko and other musical elements within Litungu music is established, it becomes easier to identify the function of silao-sikeleko in the music. Even though silao-sikeleko is both a process and a product, my study concentrates primarily on silao-sikeleko as a process of performance composition. As a product, silao-sikeleko normally exists after the performance has been completed in the minds of the audience and the performers. Likewise, the recordings of Litungu music obtained during my fieldwork also contain examples of silao-sikeleko as the products of the performance compositional events. As a process, silaosikeleko keeps unfolding during the performance composition of Litungu music. A song performed on different occasions by the same band has different words as silao-sikeleko but the song theme is maintained. The performance composition of silao-sikeleko takes place within the Bukusu socio-cultural environment. To create relevant social context, the following sections describe the Bukusu people and their cultural beliefs and practices that affect the performance of silao-sikeleko. This is then followed by a discussion of Bukusu music and Litungu music in particular. 1. 1. 1 Who are the Bukusu? The Bukusu, who call themselves Ã¢â¬Å"BabukusuÃ¢â¬ , are a sub-tribe of the Abaluhya community, who migrated from the region around Cameroon as part of the large group of Bantu-speaking people. They moved eastwards to what is presently central Uganda and then settled around the Mount Elgon. From there they settled in their current location (Makila 1978: 26). In Kenya, the Abaluhya settled mainly in western Kenya and parts of the Rift valley. With regard to social communication, the Luluhya language consists of seventeen dialects with the prefix Ã¢â¬Å"AvaÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"AbaÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"BaÃ¢â¬ depending on the Luhya dialect of origin. Apart from the Babukusu dialect, the other sub-tribes are Bamarachi, Bakhayo, Babedakho, Babesukha, Batiriki, Basamia, Banyole, 2 Barakoli, Bawanga, Bamarama, Bakisa, Bamateka, Bachocho, Bakabarasi, Batachoni and Banyala (Wanyama 2006: 1-3). Even though the sub-tribes are many and appear different, they do have some similarities in their cultural practices (Gwako 1998: 176). For instance, they believe in God whom they call Ã¢â¬Å"WereÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"NyasayeÃ¢â¬ depending on dialect; they name their children after climatic conditions or major social events; they practise male circumcision as a rite of passage; and they have lengthy greetings as exemplified by Salome NanyamaÃ¢â¬â¢s greeting dialogue on page 8 and 9. More significant to this study is the fact that the sub-tribes also share some melodies but with slightly different words due to the close geographical location of the sub-tribes. 2 A common instrument among them is the one-stringed fiddle called eshilili, isiriri, siiriri or kiiriri, depending on the dialect. 1. 1. 1. 1 Bukusu Origin and Settlement The Bukusu have a myth that serves to explain their origin, namely, that Wele Khakaba (God) created Mwambu (man) out of mud. He also created a wife for him called Sela (Makila 1986: 1823). The stories about Mwambu and Sela as the fore-fathers are narrated in Bukusu music as both silao-sikeleko and sung text (see the song Sellah in Appendix 1, page
Monday, March 9, 2020
Famous Quotes From Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Vonnegut Slaughterhouse-Five is an anti-war novel by Kurt Vonnegut. The work was first published in 1969, and its considered an American classic. Semi-autobiographical in nature, the novel is drawn from the Vonneguts war-time experiences in World War II. As a prisoner of war, Vonnegut survived the American bombing of Dresden, Germany.Ã Slaughterhouse-Five Quotes And even if the wars didnt keep coming like glaciers, there would still be plain old death.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 1 As a trafficker in climaxes and thrills and characterization and wonderful dialogue and suspense and confrontations, I had outlined the Dresden story many times.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 1 At that time, they were teaching that there was absolutely no difference between anybody. They may be teaching that still.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 1 The nicest veterans in Schenectady, I thought, the kindest and funniest ones, the ones who hated war the most, were the ones whod really fought.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 1 We went to the New York Worlds Fair, saw what the past had been like, according to the Ford Motor Car Company and Walt Disney, saw what the future would be like, according to General Motors. And I asked myself about the present: how wide it was, how deep it was, how much was mine to keep.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 1 He is in a constant state of stage fright, he says, because he never knows what part of his life he is going to have to act in next.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 2 All this responsibility at such an early age made her a bitchy flibbertigibbet.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 2 They crawled into a forest like the big, unlucky mammals they were.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 2 It is, in the imagination of combats fans, the divinely listless loveplay that follows the orgasm of victory. It is called mopping up.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 3 God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change, courage to change the things I can, and wisdom to always tell the difference.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 3 The legs of those who stood were like fence posts driven into a warm, squirming, farting, sighing earth. The queer earth was a mosaic of sleepers who nestled like spoons.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 3 I am a Tralfamadorian, seeing all time as you might see a stretch of the Rocky Mountains. All time is all time. It does not change. It does not lend itself to warnings or explanations. It simply is.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 4 My Godwhat have they done to you, lad? This isnt a man. Its a broken kite.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 5 So they were trying to re-invent themselves and their universe... Science fiction was a big help.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 5 And on and on it went that duet between the dumb, praying lady and the big, hollow man who was so full of loving echoes.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 5 The skyline was intricate and voluptuous and enchanted and absurd. It looked like a Sunday school picture of Heaven to Billy Pilgrim.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 6 In my prison cell I sit,/ With my britches full of shit,/ And my balls are bouncing gently on the floor./ And I see the bloody snag/ When she bit me in the bag./ Oh Ill never fuck a Polack any more.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 7 There are no characters in this story and almost no dramatic confrontations because most of the people in it are so sick and so much the listless playthings of enormous forces. One of the main effects of war, after all, is that people are discouraged from being characters. But old Derby was a character now.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 8 Rumfoord was thinking in in military manner: that an inconvenient person, one whose death he wished for very much, for practical reasons, was suffering from a repulsive disease.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 9 The cattle are lowing,/ The Baby awakes./ But the little Lord Jesus/ No crying he makes.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 9 Everything is all right, and everybody has to do exactly what he does.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 9 If what Billy Pilgrim learned from the Tralfamadorians is true, that we will all live forever, no matter how dead we may sometimes seem to be, I am not overjoyed. Stillif I am going to spend eternity visiting this moment and that, Im grateful that so many of those moments are nice.- Kurt Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse-Five, Chapter 10
Friday, February 21, 2020
Causes of PM2.5 in China - Research Proposal Example This paper illustrates that being a modestly developed nation from earlier times, China went into an active phase of economic expansion from the 1970s and emerged as one of the prominent world economies by the turn of the century. Further aided by international trade agenciesÃ¢â¬â¢ removal of trade barriers, China brought down its Ã¢â¬Å"iron curtainÃ¢â¬ thereby facilitating both inward and outward flow of investments. Ã¢â¬Å"Nowadays China is one of the worlds top exporters and is attracting record amounts of foreign investment. In turn, it is investing billions of dollars abroadÃ¢â¬ . Still being a socialist market economy, China has become the second largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, and the fastest-growing economy achieving growth rates of over 10 percent for the past three decades. Ã¢â¬Å"With a population of 1.3 billion, China recently became the second largest economy and is increasingly playing an important and influential role in the global economyÃ¢â¬ . This optimal economic growth has led to a number of benefits for its people and the nation as a whole including elevated lifestyle, increased purchasing power, development of finest infrastructures, and many more. However, this economic ascendance has also caused a number of challenges, with environmental degradation and the resultant health issues being the prominent one. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is mainly fuelled by its manufacturing sector, but this sector primarily emits a number of dangerous materials affecting the environment. Furthermore, ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s fast-growing economy has accentuated its energy demand, with environmentally-destructive coal being used to meet the rising demands. So, increased economic activity has gravely affected the natural environment causing a number of health problems to the Chinese people including life-threatening diseases such as cancers, heart diseases, respiratory problems, and others. Treating these health issues drain the exchequerÃ¢â¬â¢s money t hereby in a way sizably affecting or even nullifying the economic growth. More than this issue, the basic aspect of any economic growth is that it should elevate and safeguard peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives and not be a detriment.